Reparations for Slavery Reading Reparations for Slavery?
Suggested Further Readings 1. The Problems of Animal Thought and Reason Given what we know or can safely assume to be true of their behaviors and brains, can animals have thought and reason? The answer depend in large measure on what one takes thought and reason to be, as well as what animals one is considering.
Philosophers have held various views about the nature and possession conditions of thought and reason and, as a result, have offered various arguments for and against thought and reason in animals.
Below are the most influential of such arguments. Reason Hume defined as a mere disposition or instinct to form associations among such ideas on the basis of past experience. In the section of A Treatise of Human Nature entitled, "Of the Reason of Animals," Hume argued by analogy that since animals behave in ways that closely resemble the behaviors of human beings that we know to be caused by associations among ideas, animals also behave as a result of forming similar associations among ideas in their minds.
Beliefs have propositional content, whereas ideas, as Hume understood them, do not or need not. To have a belief or thought about some object for example, the color red always involves representing some fact or proposition about it for example, that red is the color of bloodbut one can entertain an image of something for example, the color red without representing any fact or proposition about it.
Also, beliefs aim at the truth, they represent states of affairs as being the case, whereas ideas, even vivid ideas, do not. And it is further argued, insofar as "belief" fails to be definable in terms of vivid ideas presented to consciousness, "reason" fails to be definable in terms of a disposition to form associations among such ideas; for whatever else reason might be, so the argument goes, it is a surely a relation among beliefs.
Toy robotic dogs, computers, and even radios behave in ways that are similar to the ways that human beings behave when we have vivid ideas presented to our consciousness, but few would take this fact alone as incontestable proof that these objects act as a result of vivid ideas presented to their consciousness Searle Normal adult human beings, of course, express their occurrent thoughts through their declarative speech; and declarative speech and occurrent thoughts share some important features.
Rather, Descartes concluded, the best explanation for the absence of speech in animals is the absence of what speech expresses—thought. There are various places in his writings where Descartes appears to go on from this conclusion to maintain that since all modes of thinking and consciousness depend upon the existence of thought, animals are devoid of all forms of thinking and consciousness and are nothing but mindless machines or automata.
It should be noted, however, that not every commentator has accepted this interpretation see Cottingham Malcolmfor example, argued that dispositional thinking is not dependent upon occurrent thought, as Descartes seemed to suppose, and is clearly possessed by many animals.
The fact that Fido cannot entertain the thought, the cat is in the tree, Malcolm argued, is not a reason to doubt that he thinks that the cat is in the tree. Others Hauser et al. And others Pepperberg ; Savage-Rumbaugh et al. For Descartes, to act through reason is to act on general principles that can be applied to an open-ended number of different circumstances.
For example, honey bees that were trained to fly down a corridor that had the same or different color as the entry room into which they had initially flown automatically transferred this knowledge to the novel stimulus dimension of smell: On this view of intelligence, sometimes called the massive modularity thesis, subjects have various distinct mechanisms, or modules, in their brains for solving problems in different domains for example, a module for solving navigation problems, a module for solving problems in the physical environment, a module for solving social problems within a group, and so on.
It is not to be expected on this theory of intelligence that an animal capable of solving problems in one domain, such as exclusion problems for food, should be capable of solving similar problems in a variety of other domains, such as exclusion problems for predators, mates, and offspring.
In a series of articles,Davidson put forward three distinct but related arguments against animal thought and reason: The Intensionality Test The intensionality test rest on the assumption that the contents of beliefs and thought in general are finer grained than the states of affairs they are about.
The belief that Benjamin Franklyn was the inventor of bifocals, for example, is not the same as the belief that the first postmaster general of the US was the inventor of bifocals, even though both beliefs are about the same state of affairs.
This fine-grained nature of belief content is reflected in the sentences we use to ascribe them. Thus, the sentence, "Sam believes that Benjamin Franklyn was the inventor of bifocals," may be true while the sentence, "Sam believes that the first postmaster general of the US was the inventor of bifocals," may be false.
Belief ascriptions that have this semantic feature—that is, their truth value may be affected by the substitution of co-referring expressions within their "that"-clauses—are called intensional or semantically opaque. The reason that is typically given for why belief ascriptions are intensional is that their purpose is to describe the way the subject thinks or conceives of some object or state of affairs.
Belief ascriptions with this purpose are called de dicto ascriptions, as opposed to de re ascriptions see below. Our de dicto belief ascriptions to animals are unjustified, Davidson argued, since for any plausible de dicto belief ascription that we make there are countless others and no principled way of deciding which is the correct way of describing how the animal thinks.
Take, for instance, the claim that Fido believes that the cat is in the tree. It seems that one could just as well have said that Fido believes that the small furry object is in the tree, or that the small furry object is in the tallest object in the yard, and so on.Secession summary: the secession of Southern States led to the establishment of the Confederacy and ultimately the Civil War.
It was the most serious secession movement in the United States and was defeated when the Union armies defeated the Confederate armies in the Civil War, book advances the argument that though not small in size, the U.S. welfare system has failed to curb inequalities and poverty.
In fact, the U.S.
recorded the highest income inequality score (Gini Index. It has been 17 years the parents have paid into the welfare system.
In , Congress enacted the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in order to increase the number of Americans covered by health insurance and decrease the cost of health care. We may not always know it, but we think in metaphor. A large proportion of our most commonplace thoughts make use of an extensive, but unconscious, system of metaphorical concepts, that is, concepts from a typically concrete realm of thought that are used to . From the era of slavery to the rise of Donald Trump, wealthy elites have relied on the loyalty of poor whites. All Americans deserve better. I’m just a poor white trash motherfucker.
Throughout those years the money they both paid went to support some other families, some foreigners, some young, some old, etc. Of course Hillary isn't a name that's new or unfamiliar to anyone, since she has already served two terms as co-president. But now her goal is to the the President of the United States, officially and without taking a back seat to anyone.
We may not always know it, but we think in metaphor. A large proportion of our most commonplace thoughts make use of an extensive, but unconscious, system of metaphorical concepts, that is, concepts from a typically concrete realm of thought that are used to .
From the era of slavery to the rise of Donald Trump, wealthy elites have relied on the loyalty of poor whites. All Americans deserve better. I’m just a poor white trash motherfucker.